Creative Evaluation Glossary

Hello! This is a non-traditional glossary. For the most part, it does not include dictionary definitions for words and concepts. Rather it brings together the ways people talk about concepts in their fields, in books, and in literature. This glossary is a work in progress; we update it all the time.

If you have suggestions for additions or modifications, please email us at create@creativeeval.com. If you find this helpful or use it in your work, we’d love to hear that as well.

 

A

Acute Grief

“Acute grief occurs in the early period after a loss and often dominates the life of a bereaved person; strong feelings of yearning, longing and sorrow are typical as are insistent thoughts and memories of the person who died.  Other painful emotions, including anxiety, anger, remorse, guilt or shame are also common. Activities are often focused on doing or not doing things to try to deal with the loss.”

2019, The Center for Complicated Grief T, Columbia School of Social Work, The Center for Complicated Grief

Adaptation to Loss

“Adapting to loss entails accepting the reality of the death, including its finality, consequences and changed relationship to the person who died; adapting means seeing the future as holding possibilities for a life with purpose and meaning, joy and satisfaction.”

2019, The Center for Complicated Grief T, Columbia School of Social Work, The Center for Complicated Grief

Aesthetic intervention

“A methodological strategy created by bell hooks (1995) for researching the capability of art to jolt people into seeing differently.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Aesthetic power

“An arts-based evaluation criterion that is created through the incisiveness , concision , and coherence of the final artistic output (Barone & Eisner, 2012; Chilton & Leavy, 2014).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Arts-based research (ABR)

“An approach to research that adapts the tenets of the creative arts in a social research project to address social research questions in holistic and engaged ways; a generative approach that places the inquiry process at the center and values aesthetic understanding, evocation, and provocation.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Arts-based research questions

“These research questions are inductive, emergent, and generative. They often use words and phrases such as explore, create, play, emerge, express, trouble, subvert, generate, inquire, stimulate, illuminate, unearth, yield, and seek to understand.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Audience(s)

“Those who read or consume the research findings.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Authorities or experts

“Sources from whom we gain knowledge in daily life , including individuals we know personally such as our parents or guardians, friends, and teachers.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

 

B

Belonging


Beauty

 

C

CAQDAS

“Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis. There are numerous programs, including NVivo, MAXQDA, ATLAS.ti, Deedoose, Ethnograph, Qualrus, HyperRESEARCH, and NUD*IST.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Chaos
"The scientific term “ chaos ” refers to an underlying interconnectedness that exists in apparently random events . Chaos science focuses on hidden patterns , nuance , the “ sensitivity ” of things , and the “ rules ” for how the unpredictable leads to the new."
Briggs, John. Seven Life Lessons of Chaos: Spiritual Wisdom from the Science of Change (p. 2). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

Coding

“In qualitative research, a process of analysis that allows for the reduction and classification of the generated data. Coding is the process of assigning a word or phrase to segments of data. The code selected should summarize or capture the essence of that segment of data (Saldaña, 2009). Coding may be done by hand or using computer-assisted software (CAQDAS).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Collective Efficacy, Systems, and Equity

“Collective or group efficacy is the shared belief in collective power to produce a desired result. In other words, it is a community’s collective capacity to take coordinated and interdependent action on issues that affect their lives. To achieve a shared goal, members of the group must first have individual agency, or believe in their personal capabilities and that their contributions to the effort are valued. Secondly, the members of the group must believe in their collective functioning when operating as a whole. When these groups are community or cultural organizations, the higher the perceived collective efficacy and motivational investment in the cause, the stronger the staying power is in the face of challenges and setbacks to goal achievement.

“No one organization can bring about positive social change on its own. Centering art and culture in community problem solving relies on the the contribution of many stakeholders, including organizations, community members, artists and cultural leaders.  These systems of support, defined as the resources (financial, in-kind, organization, and human) that are required to bring opportunities for participation in creative expressions to fruition, are critical to a community’s cultural vitality and organizational resiliency.

“Organizations can act as intermediary agents to assist in building horizontal or relational systems of support. These networks connect people and organize across sectors, co-create and co-own a shared vision for the community, and result in greater awareness of threats to cultural assets. Horizontal networks can engage a wider mix of actors better able to respond to complex issues, and broadens the ways artists and communities participate in works of art by creating the relationships and conditions for collective efficacy.

“A framework of shared values and vision fosters motivational investment in a collective cause. Historically, community-based cultural organizations have thrived in shifting demographic change; their missions and programs often address the influx of new populations with an understanding of the historical legacy of racial and cultural inequity. Therefore, community-based arts organizations provide models of partnerships that cross silos and sectors to connect art organically with other areas, such as health and community development, toward equity and and social justice.”

Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(3), 75-78.

Jackson, M.R. & Herranz, J. (2002).  Culture counts in communities: A framework for measurement (Report). The Urban Institute.

Borrup, T. (2016).  Equity and resilience: Planning and developing horizontal networks through cultural districts. In S. Kenny, B. McGrath, & R. Phillips (Eds), The Routledge handbook of community development: Perspectives from around the globe. New York: Routledge.

Barton, N. Building resiliency: Anchoring. Community Development Investment Review. Resourced from:  https://www.frbsf.org/community-development/files/building-resiliency.pdf

Chew, R. (2009). Community-based arts organizations: A new center of gravity (Report). Americans for the Arts, Washington D.C.


Community-based participatory research questions

“These research questions are inductive, change-oriented, and inclusive. They often use words and phrases such as co-create, collaborate, participatory, empower, emancipate, promote, foster, describe, and seek to understand from the perspective of various stakeholders.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Complex Adaptive System


Complicated grief

“Complicated grief is a persistent form of intense grief in which maladaptive thoughts and dysfunctional behaviors are present along with continued yearning, longing and sadness and/or preoccupation with thoughts and memories of the person who died. Grief continues to dominate life and the future seems bleak and empty. Irrational thoughts that the deceased person might reappear are common and the bereaved person feels lost and alone.”

2019, The Center for Complicated Grief T, Columbia School of Social Work, The Center for Complicated Grief

Common Good

“The shared benefit for all or most members of society including equitable opportunities and outcomes that are achieved through citizenship and collective action. The common good includes cultural, social, economic, and political resources as well as natural resources involving shared materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.”

American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

Community

Community Engagement

“Community engagement is a process of inclusive public participation designed to support the well-being of the community. While community engagement often refers to the ways community members participate in communal life to improve conditions or shape the community’s future, it has been defined broadly as community service, collective action, or political involvement.

“The arts can be used to provoke, to catalyze, and to enable the way that people engage with the world around them. Community-based arts organizations are aware and deeply connected to community needs, demographic changes, technological advances, and changing political climates. Inspired by the Civil Rights Movement and other social causes, these organizations have developed innovative ways to engage community members in authentic, responsive ways that contribute to larger societal goals.  Arts organisations are uniquely placed to engage in civic life since they are seen as neutral or third spaces.

“As mentioned previously, broadening the definition of art to include the “informal” arts and cultural heritage activities connect a larger cross-section of communities through new forms of participation. Research in informal arts community-building demonstrates how community arts activities bring people together across social boundaries, developing a greater tolerance for difference, improved capacity for trust and consensus building, and enhanced problem-solving skills. Placing art at the center of problem solving is also about the practice of “assertive humanism”: arts and culture responding to contemporary social conditions.”

International Association of Public Participation. (n.d.) https://www.iap2.org/

Stallings, S. N. & Mauldin, B. (2016). Developing a common framework for public engagement in the arts: A review of recent literature (Report). Los Angeles County Arts Commission.

Kings College London (n.d.). The civic role of arts organizations: A literature review for Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Report).

Chew, R. (2009). Community-based arts organizations: A new center of gravity (Report). Americans for the Arts, Washington D.C.

Community and Social Cohesion

“Utilizing arts and cultural strategies to solving community issues can contribute to the formation of social cohesion. Social cohesion, or the feeling of community that individuals feel when working together, the glue that turns “I” into “we”, has four dimensions: 1) group relations or connections, 2) a sense of belonging or place, 3) orientation toward the common good, and 4) a willingness to participate or co-operate with one another. With social cohesion, the neighborhood/community becomes a transactional, sharing setting.  Social cohesion is a lever for low-income and racially/ethnically diverse communities to achieve better and a more equitable well-being.

“Arts and cultural strategies to problem solving can serve as a catalyst for social cohesion by creating bonding social capital, or the norms of reciprocity and trust that exist between community members. Collective experiences help create this bonding social capital; when a community comes together to share celebrations, rituals, and intercultural dialogue, it is enhancing relationships, partnerships, and networks.

“Organizations can use arts and cultural strategies to leverage social cohesion by:

  • Maintaining a consistent presence in the community;

  • Encouraging participation from community members who might not typically participate in arts and cultural activities;

  • Prioritizing community ownership through co-design and co-creation, providing opportunities for community members to collaborate and share experiences;

  • Creating an alignment between arts and cultural topics and desired community impacts.”

Collins, C. R., Neal, J. W., & Neal, Z. P. (2014). Transforming individual civic engagement into community collective efficacy: The role of bonding social capital. American Journal of Community Psychology. Retrieved from: https://tinyurl.com/y9tvzvnu

Martin, B. & Engh, R. (2018). “WE-making.” Contributions of place-based arts and cultural strategies to social cohesion: A framing document. [Report]. Metris Arts Consulting, Easton, PA.

Communication/Storytelling

“When community organizations are engaged in art-based solutions, they find innovative ways to bring different art forms together focused on building relationships within the groups they serve. “Two-way encounters”, “dialogues”, “cooperation”, and “collaboration” are common words used to describe projects that use art to solve community problems, highlighting the important role that communication and storytelling plays in these efforts.

“Storytelling is often a key part of local community organizing efforts. In Chicago, for example, artists and researchers documented the experiences and stories of individuals engaged in a variety of creative pursuits to create case studies of neighborhood life. In Boston, researchers used digital storytelling and video to record personal narratives of residents describing their cultural identities and expressions in their neighborhoods. These practices focused utilized storytelling to bring awareness to the extent of arts and cultural opportunities available in urban neighborhoods.

“Storytelling helps tell the story of the value of participation in cultural life. Oral histories and stories provide important contextual information that helps understand a community’s cultural vitality in ways that do not lend itself to easily quantifiable information. As such, ethnographic profiles of communities provide rich details of the creative lives of individuals and communities in ways that statistical data do no.

“Storytelling is also central to building a community of practice within community organizations; the creation, sharing, and exchanging of stories communicates not only what non-profit, community, and arts leaders to do but why they engage in their work. Many arts and cultural leaders are taking time to pause, reflect, and write down and share their best practices in “first voice.” This sharing of best practices is be especially valuable as some of these leaders leave the field or retire, and as others who follow to understand and learn from those who came before them.”

Jackson & Herranz, 2002.

Jackson, M. R., Kabwasa-Green, F. & Herranz, J. (2006). Cultural vitality in communities: Interpretation  and indicators (Report). The Urban Institute, Washington D.C.

Chew, R. (2009). Community-based arts organizations: A new center of gravity (Report). Americans for the Arts, Washington D.C.


Conditional Love
"The most unforgiving love is conditional love. It brings with it jealousy, the desire to possess, dominate, to own. These faces of the False Self may attempt to assert and even justify their “right” but sooner or later negativity sets in and conditional love is destroyed. Conditional love is temporary. It is the bane of humanity."
Egby, Robert. The Quest of the Radical Spiritualist (p. 150). Three Mile Point Publishing. Kindle Edition.

Construct

“The measure is tapping into the concept and related concepts the researcher intends it to access, which requires the researcher to create highly specific operational definitions.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Content

“A judgment call made by experts that the measure is tapping what it is intended to access.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Content analysis or document analysis

“A method for systematically investigating texts/studying documented human communications (Adler & Clark, 2011; Babbie, 2013). Content analysis relies on nonliving data, which means noninteractive data that exist independent of the research and are thus considered naturalistic (Reinharz, 1992, pp. 147–148).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Context of discovery

“A discussion in which the researcher accounts for his/her own role as a researcher in the research process.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Contextual Factors

“Geographic location and conditions; political, technological, environmental, and social climate; cultures; economic and historical conditions; language, customs, local norms, and practices; timing; and other factors that may influence an evaluation process or its findings.”

American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51


Creativity

Cultural beliefs

“A source from which we gain knowledge in daily life based on social–historical conditions.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Cultural competence

“When conducting research on or with individuals with whom the researcher shares social or cultural differences, such as race, ethnicity, religion, social class or education, he/she is mindful of different cultural understandings or experiences and commonly used expressions and other ways of communicating , and uses nonoffensive and mutually understandable language.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Culturally Competent Evaluator

"[an evaluator(s) who] draws upon a wide range of evaluation theories and methods to design and carry out an evaluation that is optimally matched to the context. In constructing a model or theory of how the evaluation operates, the evaluator reflects the diverse values and perspectives of key stakeholder groups,”

American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

 

D

Data analysis

“Summarizing and organizing data” (Trent & Cho, 2014, p. 652).

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Definition and Role of Culture and Culture Keepers

“From a sociological lens, culture can be defined as the language, customs, beliefs, rules, arts, knowledge and collective identities developed by a social group that makes their lives meaningful.  Definitions of art, culture, and creativity depend on the values, preferences, and realities of stakeholders in a given community. Envisioning art and culture as central to problem-solving also involves recognizing and validating whatever creative expressions a given community defines and values as community assets.

“Supporting an ecosystem that recognizes a broader range of activities in its definition of cultural participation also includes an awareness of unintentionally privileging certain modes, venues, genres, and cultural traditions in funding and programming. An explicit attempt to broaden the definition of cultural engagement increases participation substantially, with people from a wide range of social and economic backgrounds participating at both community and regional levels.

“A culture keeper is a holder of valuable cultural knowledge; they actively practice, pass on, and preserve the cultural traditions of a community. Culture keepers play crucial roles as leaders, teachers, role models, and mentors. Elders, or traditional knowledge or culture keepers, are central to Indigenous communities; they are recognized by the community for the cultural and traditional knowledge they possess. Elders are central to Indigenous knowledge - they link the past to the present, provide context and culturally-specific knowledge, and are central to raising awareness about Indigenous histories and worldviews to increase cultural competency.

American Sociological Society (2018). Culture. Resourced from http://www.asanet.org/topics/culture

Jackson, M.R. & Herranz, J. (2002).  Culture counts in communities: A framework for measurement (Report). The Urban Institute.

Createquity (2018). www.createquity.com/issue/participation

Queens University (2018). Elders protocol handbook. Resourced from https://www.queensu.ca/fourdirections/sites/webpublish.queensu.ca.fdascwww/files/files/Elders%20Protocol%20Handbook.pdf

Directional language

“Uses words such as cause, effect, determine, influence, relate, associate, and correlate.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Durability/Sustainability

“Arts and cultural organizations, as value-based organizations, have a sustained commitment to fundamental values of cultural responsibility, ethical practices, and respectful relationships. Resilient organizations create and sustain arts-based solutions to community problems with a given community’s needs over time.

“Small, non-profit community organizations play a proportionally large role in problem solving in local communities; their smaller scale affords a more authentic connection to their communities. However, they are chronically under-valued due to their lack of obligation for oversight and monitoring, and the ‘hands on’ nature of their community work. A lack of general awareness of small community organizations’ value often equates to a lack of much needed financial support.

“However,  through decades of experience, leaders of small, community-based arts and culture organizations have learned how to restructure their organizations, create better financial systems of support, market community programs, integrate new technology, and build additional constituent followings to remain resilient and sustainable. Funders and other collaborators can help community-based arts organizations remain resilient through capacity building to help individuals and organizations do their best, good work for the communities they serve. Collaborators can also help tell the story of the value arts and cultural organizations bring to communities. Community based arts and culture organizations should also engage young people in strategies for problem solving wherever possible to build the skills of the civic leaders of tomorrow. Digital technologies also invite a myriad of possibilities for collaboration, non-hierarchical communication, cross-cultural engagement, and efficiency in decision-making and planning processes.”

Chew, R. (2009). Community-based arts organizations: A new center of gravity (Report). Americans for the Arts, Washington D.C.

Kings College London (n.d.). The civic role of arts organizations: A literature review for Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Report).

 

E


Ecological Validity

“The findings are generalizable to a real-world setting.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Emotion
"Emotion arises at the place where mind and body meet . It is the body’s reaction to your mind — or you might say , a reflection of your mind in the body."
Tolle, Eckhart. The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment (p. 25). New World Library. Kindle Edition.

Enlightenment
"The word enlightenment conjures up the idea of some superhuman accomplishment , and the ego likes to keep it that way , but it is simply your natural state of felt oneness with Being . It is a state of connectedness with something immeasurable and indestructible , something that , almost paradoxically , is essentially you and yet is much greater than you."
Tolle, Eckhart. The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment (p. 12). New World Library. Kindle Edition.

Environment

“The surroundings or conditions in which a being lives or operates; the setting or conditions in which a particular activity occurs.”

American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

Epistemology

“A philosophical belief system about how research proceeds, how one embodies the role of researcher, and how one understands the relationship between the researcher and the research participants (Guba & Lincoln, 1998; Harding, 1987; Hesse-Biber & Leavy, 2004, 2011).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Equity

“The condition of fair and just opportunities for all people to participate and thrive in society regardless of individual or group identity or difference. Striving to achieve equity includes mitigating historic disadvantage and existing structural inequalities.”
American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

Equity/Inclusion

“Cultural equity and inclusion is a key outcome of placing art and culture at the center of problem solving. Equitable development is informed by culture; one that recognizes shared, interdependent values and practices that shape the quality of our lives. Art expresses and embodies culture in all its forms, and provides meaning and substance to our daily practices and social activities.

“Arts and culture can be leveraged to advance equity by connecting and deepening the social fabric of community life. When arts and cultural activities are situated in community, organizations play a role in reducing oppression and increasing justice and equity.  For example, promoting art produced by young people affords them the ability to engage and enter conversations that were previously closed to them, allowing youth to share their stories and experiences and connect with others in an authentic way.

“Engaged community arts and cultural organizations are defining equitable engagement and collaboration. To support the work of these organizations, the artistic and cultural assets of communities, regions, and tribal communities should be mapped with a focus on communities of color and low-income communities. Identify the barriers that exist for communities of color and low-income communities, with an eye toward restructuring processes to ensure equitable access to resources. Expanding equity-focused arts and culture investments across public agencies, through community-driven cultural plans, budget appropriations, and targeted allocations to disadvantaged communities, artists of color, and cultural institutions serving communities of color and low-income communities. Finally, ensure that governance and staffing are representative of the populations served by the organization.

“Evaluation is also a tool for equity in arts and culture-based strategies.  Funders, organizations, and evaluators each play a role in advancing equity. The evaluation of initiatives that place art and culture at the center of problem solving can and should answer critical questions about historical and structural decisions that contributed to an issue, the effect of an arts or culture-based strategy on different populations and community members, the effect of a strategy on the underlying systemic drivers of inequity, and the ways in which cultural context manifests in both the structural conditions and the change initiative itself.  The evaluation should be designed and implemented with the values underlying equity work - multiculturally valid and oriented toward participant ownership.”

Rose, K., Daniel, M. R, & Liu, J. (2017). Creating change through arts: A policy and practice primer (Report). Policy LInk, www.policylink.org

Chew, R. (2009). Community-based arts organizations: A new center of gravity (Report). Americans for the Arts, Washington D.C.

Equitable Evaluation Initiative (n.d.). The equitable evaluation framework (Webpage). Resourced from https://equitable-eval.squarespace.com/ee-framework

Ethical substructure

Impacts every aspect of the research process (Hesse-Biber & Leavy, 2011; Leavy, 2011a) and contains dimensions on three levels: philosophical, praxis, and reflexivity. The philosophical dimension of ethics is based on each person’s values system and addresses the question “What do you believe?” The praxis dimension of ethics addresses the question “What do you do?” The reflexivity dimension of ethics combines the philosophical and praxis and addresses the question “How does power come to bear?”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Ethics

“Philosophical and praxis levels of research that include values, ethics, and reflexivity. Comes from the Greek word ethos, which means character, and incorporates morality, integrity, fairness, and truthfulness.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Ethnodrama

“Writing up research findings in dramatic or script form, which may or may not  be performed.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Ethnotheatre

“A performance-based practice in which an ethnodrama is performed for an audience.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Evoke, provoke, or unsettle

“To jar specified audiences (groups of people) into thinking about or seeing something differently; to promote new learning or create an awareness campaign (a purpose for social research).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

External Validity

“The findings have been generalized only to populations supported by the tests. Internal Precautions have been taken to safeguard against the possibility that an extraneous variable influenced the results.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

 

F


Face

“A judgment call made by laypeople that the measure is tapping what it is intended to access.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Faith

False Self
"The false self is responsible for everything negative within us. It is a learned condition and it is unique in each one of us. Worst of all, many people believe that that is their true person, and steadfastly believe it cannot be changed, it cannot be dissolved. Often they will claim it is in their DNA.”  
Egby, Robert. The Quest of the Radical Spiritualist (p. 29). Three Mile Point Publishing. Kindle Edition.

Fear
"It’s not a terrible thing that we feel fear when faced with the unknown . It is part of being alive , something we all share . We react against the possibility of loneliness , of death , of not having anything to hold on to. Fear is a natural reaction to moving closer to the truth."
Chodron, Pema. When Things Fall Apart: Heart Advice for Difficult Times (Shambhala Classics) (p. 2). Shambhala Publications. Kindle Edition.

Fiction-based research (FBR), fiction as a research practice (FARP) or social fiction

“A literary method of arts - based research in which one writes fiction as a process of inquiry or based on data collected with another research method. Within this practice, rewriting is an act of analysis.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

First, do no harm

“Adapted from the biomedical community, the primary principle governing the protection of research participants stating that no harm should come to research participants or, by extension, the research setting.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

 

G

Grief

“Grief is the response to loss that contains thoughts, behaviors, emotions and physiological changed; if the loss is permanent, so too is the grief, but its form evolves and changes as a person adapts to the loss.”

2019, The Center for Complicated Grief T, Columbia School of Social Work, The Center for Complicated Grief

Guiding Principles vs. Evaluation Standards

“The Guiding Principles pertain to the ethical conduct of the evaluator whereas the Evaluation Standards pertain to the quality of the evaluation.”

American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

 

H


Healing

Hope

 

I

Inner Light

Individual Agency

“Building individual agency allows people to envision art as central to problem-solving in their communities. Agency is the capacity for individuals to use resources available in their environment to respond to and transcend above problems. To have agency, people must have the ability to make choices and use the resources in their environment creatively. Also, there can be no agency without power; agents must also feel that they have the power to influence processes, that their voices are heard, and that they can make a difference. Agency is the force behind social action; it is agency that allows individuals to have a conviction: “This is what I believe in, this is what I stand for, this is what I will devote my efforts to.” People will also develop a sense of agency if they have confidence their personal and communal efforts will be recognized and supported.  As such, agents need to feel reward for work at the edge of their abilities. Resilience is the product of agency; knowing that what you do can make a difference.

“Creative, skilled individuals are an integral part of any art and cultural organization’s ability to do good in their communities. Fostering individual agency is a crucial first step in helping organizations thrive. Organizations can help their staff and community stakeholders develop a strong sense of personal agency through building individual capacity.  For example, organizations can help individuals to identify and develop their unique skills, strengths, and leadership styles. Also, help staff understand and express what drives them by supporting their convictions and personal sense of purpose. Encourage an “outside-in” view of the work by facilitating staff engagement in environmentals scans resulting in a greater understanding of the work’s context. Also realize that personal change, and the development of personal agency, takes time and continuous investment in improvement.”

Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 164-180.
Newman, L. & Dale, A. (2005). The role of agency in sustainable local community development. Local Environment, 10(5), pp. 447-486.

 v.d. Kolk, Bessel. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. London, UK: Penguin.

Informed consent

“Written consent from participants acknowledging that they understand the possible risks and benefits associated with participation in the research, that their participation is voluntary and confidential, and that they freely agree to participate.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Insider–outsider status

“Status characteristics that the researcher either shares in common, or does not share in common, with the participants.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Interpretation

“Finding or making meaning” from the data (Trent & Cho, 2014, p. 652).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Integrated Grief

“Integrated grief is the lasting form of grief in which loss-related thoughts, feelings and behaviors are integrated into a bereaved person’s ongoing functioning; grief has a place in the person’s life without dominating.”

2019, The Center for Complicated Grief T, Columbia School of Social Work, The Center for Complicated Grief

 

J

Joy
"Pleasure is always derived from something outside you , whereas joy arises from within."
Tolle, Eckhart. The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment (pp. 29-30). New World Library. Kindle Edition.

Justice

 

K

Key informants

“Participants who share not only their own experiences but also introduce the researcher to other possible participants and/or provide an overview of people and activities in the setting.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Knowledge

 

L

Leadership

“Community-based cultural organizations attract and develop a distinctive kind of leader. They believe artistic and cultural expression as the catalyst for engagement around civic, racial, ethnic, and community issues. They honor both cultural legacy and future possibilities with a keen awareness of the changing demographics of their communities.

“Leaders of arts and cultural organizations acknowledge that to achieve their social and artistic goals, they need to extend partnerships across disciplines and fields. Diversity is key to strong collective decision making. Through horizontal relational networks cultural organizations hone skills and knowledge bases for effective and credible collaboration. As such, leadership in arts and cultural organizations is distributed; it is not positional, it can come from anywhere in an organization or community.

“However, leadership transition is increasingly a concern for many community-based groups.  There are questions of how vision and energy will be sustained, and even if organizations can continue, when founding leaders move on. The departure of a key leader is not simply the potential loss of a vision but a key community asset. Current leaders of community arts and culture organizations value the fostering of a new generation of leadership, testing and offering strategic and creative approaches in succession for others to model.”

Chew, R. (2009). Community-based arts organizations: A new center of gravity (Report). Americans for the Arts, Washington D.C.


Loss

Love

 

M


Mantra
"The word “mantra” comes from the Sanskrit and means invocation, prayer, hymn, and a call to the higher powers and Cosmic Divinity."
Egby, Robert. The Quest of the Radical Spiritualist (p. 157). Three Mile Point Publishing. Kindle Edition.

Medium
"A medium is a communicator, a channel who receives information, data, sounds, odors, mental and physical impressions from the World of Spirit and delivers that information to recipients in the physical world."
Egby, Robert. The Quest of the Radical Spiritualist (p. 64). Three Mile Point Publishing. Kindle Edition.

 

N

Nondirectional language

“Uses words and phrases such as explore, describe, illuminate, unearth, unpack, generate, build meaning, and seek to understand.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Nonparticipatory observation

“The researcher observes the participants in the setting, typically over a long period of time, without engaging in the same activities as the participants.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

 

O

Ontology

“A philosophical belief system about the nature of the social world.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Organization

“Organizations that place art and culture at the center of problem solving are commonly flexible, community grounded, and inclusive. These organizations are guided by a community organizing outlook, rather than a corporate perspective.  It is well known that public sector and foundation support are crucial to the success of community initiatives. However, even well-established community organizations struggle to build staff, systems, and fiscal support to achieve their ambitious goals. Many funders choose to invest in short-term programs or initiatives rather than capacity-building methods for organizations to stabilize operations and ensure institutional growth.

“Community-based cultural organizations are often partners to established mainstream institutions, however community-based organizations have often not benefited equitably in the allocation of funds to support their contribution to the work. Arts organizations serving communities of color are, in general, much less financially secure and far smaller than their counterparts in white communities.

“Capacity building for arts and cultural organizations, especially those that serve communities of color and rural communities, invests in the effectiveness and future stability of an organization. Capacity building should be viewed as a continuous improvement strategy, helping organizations realize their potential and role in contributing to social change in ways that reach beyond their own direct influence. When capacity building is successful, it increases the organization’s capacity to fulfill its mission and thereby having a positive impact on the communities they serve.”

Chew, R. (2009). Community-based arts organizations: A new center of gravity (Report). Americans for the Arts, Washington D.C.

Rose, K., Daniel, M. H. & Liu, J. (2017). Creating change through arts, culture, and equitable development: A policy and practice primer. [Report]. Policy Link: www.policylink.org  

TCC Group (2018). Capacity building 3.0. Resourced from http://www.tccgrp.com/pubs/capacity_building_3.php

National Council of Non-profits (2018). What is capacity building? Resourced from https://www.councilofnonprofits.org/tools-resources/what-capacity-building

Overview of Theories of Action

“A theory of action guides an organization, initiative or program’s role in facilitating social change and capacity-building, identifying the building blocks required to bring about long-term, sustainable change in communities.

“Basically defined, a theory is an explanation, supported by evidence or research, of why certain things happen. A theory of action is a diagram that maps a) the intended impact of the work (outcomes), b) what changes are necessary to make the outcomes possible (pre-conditions and actions), c) the relationship between the preconditions and the outcomes (illustrating the how and the why). Theories of action depict an organization’s strategy in a visual way.

“Two examples from the arts and culture sector help illustrate how mapping out theories of action help to clarify strategies for change, identify key assumptions, and create a shared language. ArtsBoston began with a theory of action to help arts organizations in the effort to engage and retain audiences of color. They quickly realized that the issue was not just about audience diversity. Mapping out a theory of action helped the organizations see that if they wanted meaningful change, they needed build out long-term strategies that included structural and institutional change as well.

“CreatEquity’s theory of action helped demonstrate the the two “tracks” of activity aimed at growing the arts ecosystem and increase overall social well-being. The first track identified CreatEquity actions to increase  the capacity of arts decision-makers (those who are or will be empowered to make decisions around how artists operate and how communities engage with art) to use information to guide decision-making. The second track focused on actions for how issue leaders (people who are currently empowered to make decisions that have implications for the health of an arts ecosystem) articulate the case for change. The ultimate goal was to help improve the quality of decision-making in the arts and cultural sector.”

Action Evaluation Collaborative (2018). https://actionevaluation.org/theory-of-actiontheory-of-change-tools-resources/

George, V. (2018, May). Diversification begins with a theory of change. [Blog post]. https://blog.americansforthearts.org/2018/05/10/diversification-begins-with-a-theory-of-change

CreatEquity (2018). CreatEquity’s theory of change.

 

P


Pain
"The pain that you create now is always some form of nonacceptance , some form of unconscious resistance to what is. […] The intensity of the pain depends on the degree of resistance to the present moment , and this in turn depends on how strongly you are identified with your mind".
Tolle, Eckhart. The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment (p. 33). New World Library. Kindle Edition.


Participatory observation

“Requires the researcher to engage in the activities of those he or she is researching, typically over a long period of time, and to record systematic observations.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Paradigm

“A worldview or framework through which knowledge is filtered (Kuhn, 1962; Lincoln et al., 2011).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Pathogenic Beliefs
"Pathogenic beliefs encourage us to act on the premise that we can't count on others, that we are stuck in a society that cannot be changed. These beliefs become increasingly accurate descriptions of our lives the longer we cling to them."
Michael Lerner. Spirit Matters (p. 17). Kindle Edition.

People or Groups

“Those who may be affected by an evaluation including, but not limited to, those defined by race, ethnicity, religion, gender, income, status, health, ability, power, underrepresentation, and/or disenfranchisement.”

American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

Personal and sensory experiences

“A source of knowledge in daily life based on one’s own personal experiences, including what one sees, hears, smells, tastes, and touches.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Philosophy of arts-based research

“Recognizes art as able to convey truth(s) or bring about awareness (both knowledge of the self and of others); recognizes that the use of the arts is critical in achieving self/other knowledge; values preverbal ways of knowing; and includes multiple ways of knowing such as sensory, kinesthetic, and imaginary.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Photovoice

“A practice that merges photography with participatory methods in which participants are given cameras and asked to photograph their environment and circumstances. Some refer to this as a method for conducting arts-based action research (Chilton & Leavy, 2014).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Principle of mutuality

“Research should benefit both the researchers and participants (Loftin et al., 2005).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Process consent

“Reaffirms consent from participants at multiple points during a lengthy study, including the voluntary nature of the study and participants’ right to withdraw (Adams et al., 2015).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Professional Judgment

“Decisions or conclusions based on ethical principles and professional standards for evidence and argumentation in the conduct of an evaluation.”

American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

Presence / Staying With
"Instructions on mindfulness or emptiness or working with energy all point to the same thing : being right on the spot nails us . It nails us right to the point of time and space that we are in . When we stop there and don’t act out , don’t repress , don’t blame it on anyone else , and also don’t blame it on ourselves , then we meet with an open - ended question that has no conceptual answer . We also encounter our heart . The trick is to keep exploring and not bail out , even when we find out that something is not what we thought . That’s what we’re going to discover again and again and again . Nothing is what we thought . I can say that with great confidence . Emptiness is not what we thought . Neither is mindfulness or fear . Compassion — not what we thought . Love . Buddha nature . Courage . These are code words for things we don’t know in our minds , but any of us could experience them . These are words that point to what life really is when we let things fall apart and let ourselves be nailed to the present moment."
Chodron, Pema. When Things Fall Apart: Heart Advice for Difficult Times (Shambhala Classics) (p. 5). Shambhala Publications. Kindle Edition.

Prana
"Prana is a Hindu term meaning “Absolute Energy.” […]  Many people simply consider Prana the air we breathe, but while it is in the air, it is not air, and mysteriously it penetrates where air cannot reach. If we call Prana vitality, we are closing in on its real quality."
Egby, Robert. The Quest of the Radical Spiritualist (p. 141). Three Mile Point Publishing. Kindle Edition.

 

Q

 

R

Region

“The goal of of the Creative Communities Initiative is to leverage the power of art and culture to build strong, healthy communities throughout the region. Central to this effort is fostering a sense of belonging to place, community or region through place-based arts and cultural strategies. Place attachment is the emotional bond people feel to a location through personal and collective history, a connection to the past through stories and events that give place meaning. Fostering place attachment helps to advance community outcomes by building collective efficacy.

“Two other key concepts need to be in motion for arts-based initiatives to fully engage and empower a community’s capacity to make a region better. First, a shared aesthetic of belonging helps reorient the outcome of arts-based strategies away from objects or experiences, and toward building community.  Secondly, civic engagement activities should be guided by activities that foster cultural stewardship, or the responsibility to protect, restore, and conserve the cultural life of a community or region.”

Martin, B. & Engh, R. (2018). “WE-making.” Contributions of place-based arts and cultural strategies to social cohesion: A framing document. [Report]. Metris Arts Consulting, Easton, PA.

Webb, D. (2013). Placemaking and social equity: Expanding the framework of creative placemaking. Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts, 3(1), 35-48.

Relational ethics

“Ethical issues that center on the interpersonal relationships between the researcher and participants (Ellis, 2007); refers to an “ethics of care” (Ellis, 2007, p. 4).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Relational language

“Uses words and phrases such as synergistic, integration, connection, comprehensive, fuller understanding, and better understanding.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Reliability

“The dependability/consistency of results.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Religion
"Religions, on the other hand, are the various historical attempts to organize a set of doctrines, rituals, and specific behaviors that are supposed to be "the right way to live.”"
Michael Lerner. Spirit Matters (pp. 5-6). Kindle Edition.

Research questions

“Central questions that guide a research project.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Respondent burden

“Occurs to the degree that respondents experience their participation as too stressful and / or time consuming (Biemer & Lyberg, 2003; Ruel et al., 2016).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Respondent fatigue

“Is caused by respondent burden and leads to a higher nonresponse rate and lower quality responses (Ruel et al., 2016).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

 

S

Scientism
"Science is a form of knowledge, a way of approaching reality. But scientism is an ideology that claims there is only one way to approach reality-through through the empirical method based on a narrow notion of what kind of experience is legitimate."
Michael Lerner. Spirit Matters (p. 66). Kindle Edition.

Sovereignty

“Sovereignty is the right to self-governance, control over one’s own destiny, free of an outside power (re)determining one’s fate.  Tribal sovereignty refers to the right of American Indian tribes to determine their own future and to operate as self-governing nations. Tribal sovereignty allows tribes to live and exist as sovereign nations, like they did before the arrival of Europeans, to manage and control their own destinies without intrusion or influence by the United States government. However, centuries of conflict, relocation, removal and assimilation have robbed tribes of their land, natural resources, and rights. Tribal nations have had to become dependent on federal assistance, threatening efforts to become self-sufficient and self-determining.

“Communities can never be whole without its Indigenous peoples and their histories fully told and explored. Acknowledgment of the traditional Native inhabitants of the land at the opening of arts and culture events, meetings, and gatherings is a simple, powerful way of showing respect and a step toward correcting the stories and practices that erase Indigenous people’s history and culture and toward inviting and honoring the truth. Native arts and culture are fundamental to the fabric of tribal communities, and cultural expression is a means to ensure cultural continuity and the very survival of Indigenous peoples and sovereign nations. Native artists and culture-bearers have dedicated their lives to sustaining art and culture in their communities. Native peoples view change as a collective focus on the common good. Recognize their leadership as agents of change and sources of strength in tribal communities.”

Minnesota Department of Education, Office of Indian Education (n.d.). American Indian history, culture and language: Sovereignty (Curriculum). Resourced from https://education.mn.gov/MDE/dse/indian/

Partnership with Native Americans (2015). What is tribal sovereignty? (Blog post). http://blog.nativepartnership.org/what-is-tribal-sovereignty/

U.S. Department of Arts and Culture (n.d.). #HonorNativeLand (Webpage). https://usdac.us/nativeland/

Pourier, L. (2017). The spirit of sovereignty woven into the fabric of tribal communities: Culture-bearers as agents of change (Report). Animating Democracy, Americans for the Arts, https://animatingdemocracy.org/sites/default/files/LPourierTrendPaper.pdf


Spaciousness

Spirituality


Stakeholders

“Individuals, groups, or organizations served by, or with a legitimate interest in, an evaluation including those who might be affected by an evaluation.”

American Evaluation Association (2011). Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Washington DC: Author. p. 3. Retrieved: https://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

Statistical Validity

“The statistical analysis chosen was appropriate and the conclusions drawn are consistent with the statistical analysis and the rules of statistical law.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Storyline

“The sequence of events within the plot in a work of fiction or ethnodrama (Saldaña, 2003).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Strength of the form

“An arts-based evaluation criterion referring to how well the components of the project, including the final representation, fit together (Barone & Eisner, 2012).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

 

T


Theory

“An account of social reality that is grounded in data but extends beyond those data (Adler & Clark, 2011).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Thinking
"Thinking and consciousness are not synonymous . Thinking is only a small aspect of consciousness . Thought cannot exist without consciousness , but consciousness does not need thought."
Tolle, Eckhart. The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment (p. 23). New World Library. Kindle Edition.

Trauma

Trauma/Healing

“Art can comfort in times of trouble, heal personal wounds, and inspire and foster a more compassionate society. The effect of trauma can rob a person of control over their body and mind; recovery from trauma is re-establishing ownership over body and mind. The capacity of art, music, and dance to circumvent the loss of control that comes with trauma may be one reason they are used as treatments in cultures around the world.

“Recovery involves reconnecting with others. Engaging in communal activities can also help people heal from trauma. Research has shown that having a positive social network is the most powerful protection against becoming traumatized; engaging in collective creative activities has the added benefit of regaining a connection with others through the power of art and culture. Sharing stories with others lessens the isolation of trauma. Collective movement and music binds people together who may be individually traumatized but collectively become advocates for themselves and others.

“For example, when children and youth live in violence filled communities, engaging in collective artistic and cultural activities can provide love, support, and a culture of care. The arts can provide an outlet for youth to learn new skills, develop and hone new talents, and express thoughts and ideas in creative and therapeutic ways. For children who have been exposed to violence or trauma, artistic expression can help them cope with painful experiences by fostering resiliency.

“Engagement with creative activities has the potential to contribute toward physical health by reducing stress and depression, and can serve as a vehicle for alleviating the burden of disease. Even engagement as an observer has been demonstrated to have positive effects on mental health. Studies have shown that engagement in music, visual arts, dance, and writing have been used during intentional interventions to foster health. While these artistic modes have been the most researched, other artistic and cultural activities also hold to the potential to heal. There is a need to embrace a broader definition of arts and cultural engagement and its effect on health, how the arts and culture bring meaningfulness to people’s everyday lives.”

Chew, R. (2009). Community-based arts organizations: A new center of gravity (Report). Americans for the Arts, Washington D.C.

v.d. Kolk, Bessel. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. London, UK: Penguin.

Heise, D. (2014). Steeling and resilience. Art Education, 67(3), 26-30.

Stuckey, H. L. & Nobel, J. (2010). The connection between art, healing, and public health: A review of the current literature. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 254-263.

Transformative paradigm

“A philosophical belief system that developed in transdisciplinary contexts and draws on critical theory, critical pedagogy, feminist, critical race, and indigenous theories. This worldview promotes a human rights, social justice, social-action-oriented, inclusive, participatory, and democratic approach to research (Mertens, 2009).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Triangulation:

“A commonly used strategy when multiple methods or sources of data are applied to address the same question (Greene, 2007; Greene et al., 1989; Hesse-Biber & Leavy, 2005, 2011).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


True Self
"The true self is that presence, that entity, that consciousness, that power that exists within all women and men. It is the power, the force, a part or reflection of the Creator, the God-Force that exists within us. It is that part of you that radiates love — pure unconditional love."
Egby, Robert. The Quest of the Radical Spiritualist (p. 29). Three Mile Point Publishing. Kindle Edition.

Trust

Truth

 

U


Unconditional Love
"Where there is true love, totally unconditional, there is no fear, no dominance, no possession, simply compassion and understanding for one’s self, the family, and those around. Where there is unconditional love there is no False Self. The illusion is gone and the True Self, the loving self reigns supreme."
Egby, Robert. The Quest of the Radical Spiritualist (p. 150). Three Mile Point Publishing. Kindle Edition.

 

V

Validation

“A process of confidence building that occurs in community (Koro-Ljungberg, 2008) through the development of intersubjective judgment (Polkinghorne, 2007).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Validity

“The extent to which a measure is actually tapping what the researcher thinks it is accessing.”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.


Values coding

“A strategy that focuses on conflicts, struggles, and power issues (Saldaña, 2014).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Variety

Vividness

“Providing detailed and rich descriptions , highlighting the particulars of the data (Whittemore et al., 2001).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

Voice

“An implicitly political term typically used to talk about the ability to speak and be heard (Hertz, 1997; Motzafi-Haller, 1997; Wyatt, 2006).”

From Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Guilford Publications.

 

W


Wholeness

 

X

Xenophobia

 

Y

Youth

 

Z